Helicobacter pylori infections represent an important factor in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, MALT lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. The recently published Maastricht V/Florence consensus report indicated that the urea breath test using 13 C urea still remains the best non-invasive test to diagnose H. pylori infections with high sensitivity and specificity. Among the stool antigen tests, the ELISA monoclonal antibody test is a rational option. Effective therapy should be based only on susceptibility testing in regions with documented high clarithromycin resistance (>15%). Advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies enable increased diagnostic accuracy for detection of H. pylori infections.