A wide variety of variables determine health and well-being in adolescence. How these variables may differ in relation to gender or sex is often not clear. In addition, research on sex differences often focuses on females rather than males. This review gives an overview on the literature with respect to possible gender/sex-specific determinants and correlates of health and well-being in adolescent boys. The search strategy used the approach of a narrative review, which led to 17 papers being included. The data synthesis employed a qualitative and descriptive analysis approach. We found sex differences in three categories: clinical symptoms, health and well-being, and risk behavior. The results show a variety of determinants that lead to sex differences in health outcomes, such as peer relations, social economic status, physical activity and coping styles. Strengths and limitations of the literature and implications for future research are discussed.