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01.11.2022 | themenschwerpunkt

Das Ösophaguskarzinom

verfasst von: Felix Böhme, Krisztina Racz, Christian Sebesta jr, Christian Sebesta

Erschienen in: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift

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Zusammenfassung

Das Ösophaguskarzinom ist ein Tumor mit schlechter Prognose und hoher Letalität. Mit weltweit jährlich über 600,000 neuen Fällen ist es die sechsthäufigste Neoplasie und die achthäufigste zum Tode führende Krebsart. Das Plattenepithelkarzinom stellt die häufigste Entität in Afrika und Asien dar, wohingegen das Adenokarzinom in Nordamerika und Europa an Häufigkeit zunimmt. Risikofaktoren schließen den Genuss von Alkohol und Tabakwaren, Reflux, Übergewicht, Stenosierungen des Ösophagus und die Achalasie ein. Möglichkeiten der medikamentösen Prophylaxe bestehen ebenso wenig, wie effektive Vorsorgeuntersuchungen. Die Klinik ist im Frühstadium unspezifisch, weshalb die Diagnose meist in späteren Stadien gestellt wird. Diagnostisch kommen Gastroskopie, CT, PET und Endosonographie zum Einsatz. Die Therapie erfolgt abhängig vom Erkrankungsstadium und Allgemeinzustand der betroffenen Patienten. Sie besteht in frühen Stadien aus der endoskopischen oder chirurgischen Resektion, in höheren Stadien in Kombination mit Radio- oder Chemotherapie. Im generalisierten Stadium kommen palliative systemische Therapien in Verbindung mit lokalen Maßnahmen zum Einsatz.
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Metadaten
Titel
Das Ösophaguskarzinom
verfasst von
Felix Böhme
Krisztina Racz
Christian Sebesta jr
Christian Sebesta
Publikationsdatum
01.11.2022
Verlag
Springer Vienna
Erschienen in
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Print ISSN: 0043-5341
Elektronische ISSN: 1563-258X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10354-022-00972-9