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During the entire 19th century, Czech lands (Bohemia and Moravia) were part of the Austrian Empire (from 1867, Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy). Obviously, there used to be quite frequent migration of Czechs of all social groups towards Austria, particularly to the capital Vienna. It is estimated that in the year 1900, from the 1.6 million inhabitants of Vienna, there were 250–300 thousand Czechs. And this tendency concerned also medicine. In this paper, the most important Czech-born medical personalities working in Vienna in the 19th century will be briefly presented—in pathology Wagner, Rokitansky, Kolletschka, and Dlauhy; in internal medicine Skoda, Oppolzer, Duchek, and Chvostek; in surgery Pitha and Albert; in physiology and ophthalmology Prohaska; in pediatrics Bednar; and in dermatology Hebra.