Skip to main content
Erschienen in: Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 9-10/2018

13.10.2017 | original article

Combined effects of varicocele and cell phones on semen and hormonal parameters

verfasst von: Ingrid Schauer, Badereddin Mohamad Al-Ali

Erschienen in: Wiener klinische Wochenschrift | Ausgabe 9-10/2018

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Summary

Background

The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a combined effect of varicocele and cell phone storage in trousers pockets on semen and hormonal parameters.

Methods

A retrospective analysis of 468 men attending an infertility clinic from 1993–2007 was performed. Varicoceles were determined by clinical examination and patients were questioned on cell phone usage and storage fashion. Semen samples were analyzed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 1999. Serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were assessed.

Results

There was a significant effect of cell phone storage in trousers pockets and varicocele in multivariate analysis (both p < 0.001). Varicocele showed an effect on sperm concentration (p = 0.003), LH (p = 0.014) and testosterone (p = 0.003). Compared to grade 1, grade 2 varicoceles showed a difference in sperm concentration (p = 0.004). Regarding testosterone differences were shown for grade 3 versus grade 1 (p = 0.002) and grade 3 compared to grade 2 (p = 0.003). Cell phone storage in trousers pockets showed an influence on the percentage of normal sperm morphology and LH (both p < 0.001). Varicocele and cell phone storage in trousers pockets did not show a combined effect (p = 0.76).

Conclusions

This analysis showed an inverse relation between sperm concentration and degree of varicocele, with lower concentrations in higher grade varicoceles. Testosterone was significantly higher in higher grade varicoceles, which could reflect a compensatory mechanism to the impaired testicular function. Cell phone storage in trousers pockets showed an effect on LH and sperm morphology. A combined effect of varicocele and cell phone storage in trousers pockets was not detected.
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Sharlip ID, Jarow JP, Belker AM, et al. Best practice policies for male infertility. Fertil Steril. 2002;77(5):873–82.CrossRefPubMed Sharlip ID, Jarow JP, Belker AM, et al. Best practice policies for male infertility. Fertil Steril. 2002;77(5):873–82.CrossRefPubMed
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Allamaneni SS, Naughton CK, Sharma RK, Thomas AJ Jr., Agarwal A. Increased seminal reactive oxygen species levels in patients with varicoceles correlate with varicocele grade but not with testis size. Fertil Steril. 2004;82(6):1684–6.CrossRefPubMed Allamaneni SS, Naughton CK, Sharma RK, Thomas AJ Jr., Agarwal A. Increased seminal reactive oxygen species levels in patients with varicoceles correlate with varicocele grade but not with testis size. Fertil Steril. 2004;82(6):1684–6.CrossRefPubMed
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Fretz PC, Sandlow JI. Varicocele: current concepts in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Urol Clin North Am. 2002;29(4):921–37.CrossRefPubMed Fretz PC, Sandlow JI. Varicocele: current concepts in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Urol Clin North Am. 2002;29(4):921–37.CrossRefPubMed
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Khera M, Lipshultz LI. Evolving approach to the varicocele. Urol Clin North Am. 2008;35(2):183–9.CrossRefPubMed Khera M, Lipshultz LI. Evolving approach to the varicocele. Urol Clin North Am. 2008;35(2):183–9.CrossRefPubMed
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Society for Male Reproduction and Urology. Report on varicocele and infertility: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2014;102(6):1556–60.CrossRef Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Society for Male Reproduction and Urology. Report on varicocele and infertility: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2014;102(6):1556–60.CrossRef
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Hamada A, Esteves SC, Agarwal A. Insight into oxidative stress in varicocele-associated male infertility: part 2. Nat Rev Urol. 2013;10(1):26–37.CrossRefPubMed Hamada A, Esteves SC, Agarwal A. Insight into oxidative stress in varicocele-associated male infertility: part 2. Nat Rev Urol. 2013;10(1):26–37.CrossRefPubMed
7.
Zurück zum Zitat World Health Organization. The influence of varicocele on parameters of fertility in a large group of men presenting to infertility clinics. Fertil Steril. 1992;57(6):1289–93.CrossRef World Health Organization. The influence of varicocele on parameters of fertility in a large group of men presenting to infertility clinics. Fertil Steril. 1992;57(6):1289–93.CrossRef
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Pasqualotto FF, Lucon AM, de Goes PM, et al. Semen profile, testicular volume, and hormonal levels in infertile patients with varicoceles compared with fertile men with and without varicoceles. Fertil Steril. 2005;83(1):74–7.CrossRefPubMed Pasqualotto FF, Lucon AM, de Goes PM, et al. Semen profile, testicular volume, and hormonal levels in infertile patients with varicoceles compared with fertile men with and without varicoceles. Fertil Steril. 2005;83(1):74–7.CrossRefPubMed
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Jarow JP, Coburn M, Sigman M. Incidence of varicoceles in men with primary and secondary infertility. Urology. 1996;47(1):73–6.CrossRefPubMed Jarow JP, Coburn M, Sigman M. Incidence of varicoceles in men with primary and secondary infertility. Urology. 1996;47(1):73–6.CrossRefPubMed
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Petrelli G, Mantovani A. Environmental risk factors and male fertility and reproduction. Contraception. 2002;65(4):297–300.CrossRefPubMed Petrelli G, Mantovani A. Environmental risk factors and male fertility and reproduction. Contraception. 2002;65(4):297–300.CrossRefPubMed
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Sheiner EK, Sheiner E, Hammel RD, Potashnik G, Carel R. Effect of occupational exposures on male fertility: literature review. Ind Health. 2003;41(2):55–62.CrossRefPubMed Sheiner EK, Sheiner E, Hammel RD, Potashnik G, Carel R. Effect of occupational exposures on male fertility: literature review. Ind Health. 2003;41(2):55–62.CrossRefPubMed
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Morgan LL, Miller AB, Sasco A, Davis DL. Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (review). Int J Oncol. 2015;46(5):1865–71.CrossRefPubMed Morgan LL, Miller AB, Sasco A, Davis DL. Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (review). Int J Oncol. 2015;46(5):1865–71.CrossRefPubMed
13.
Zurück zum Zitat IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Non-ionizing radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 2013;102(Pt 2):1–460.PubMedCentral IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Non-ionizing radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 2013;102(Pt 2):1–460.PubMedCentral
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Braune S, Riedel A, Schulte-Monting J, Raczek J. Influence of a radiofrequency electromagnetic field on cardiovascular and hormonal parameters of the autonomic nervous system in healthy individuals. Radiat Res. 2002;158(3):352–6.CrossRefPubMed Braune S, Riedel A, Schulte-Monting J, Raczek J. Influence of a radiofrequency electromagnetic field on cardiovascular and hormonal parameters of the autonomic nervous system in healthy individuals. Radiat Res. 2002;158(3):352–6.CrossRefPubMed
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Agarwal A, Singh A, Hamada A, Kesari K. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences. Int Braz J Urol. 2011;37(4):432–54.CrossRefPubMed Agarwal A, Singh A, Hamada A, Kesari K. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences. Int Braz J Urol. 2011;37(4):432–54.CrossRefPubMed
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Oftedal G, Wilen J, Sandstrom M, Mild KH. Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use. Occup Med (Lond). 2000;50(4):237–45.CrossRef Oftedal G, Wilen J, Sandstrom M, Mild KH. Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use. Occup Med (Lond). 2000;50(4):237–45.CrossRef
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Aitken RJ, Bennetts LE, Sawyer D, Wiklendt AM, King BV. Impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline. Int J Androl. 2005;28(3):171–9.CrossRefPubMed Aitken RJ, Bennetts LE, Sawyer D, Wiklendt AM, King BV. Impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline. Int J Androl. 2005;28(3):171–9.CrossRefPubMed
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Agarwal A, Desai NR, Makker K, et al. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(4):1318–25.CrossRefPubMed Agarwal A, Desai NR, Makker K, et al. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(4):1318–25.CrossRefPubMed
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Erogul O, Oztas E, Yildirim I, et al. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study. Arch Med Res. 2006;37(7):840–3.CrossRefPubMed Erogul O, Oztas E, Yildirim I, et al. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study. Arch Med Res. 2006;37(7):840–3.CrossRefPubMed
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Wdowiak A, Wdowiak L, Wiktor H. Evaluation of the effect of using mobile phones on male fertility. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007;14(1):169–72.PubMed Wdowiak A, Wdowiak L, Wiktor H. Evaluation of the effect of using mobile phones on male fertility. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007;14(1):169–72.PubMed
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Al-Ali BM, Marszalek M, Shamloul R, Pummer K, Trummer H. Clinical parameters and semen analysis in 716 Austrian patients with varicocele. Urology. 2010;75(5):1069–73.CrossRefPubMed Al-Ali BM, Marszalek M, Shamloul R, Pummer K, Trummer H. Clinical parameters and semen analysis in 716 Austrian patients with varicocele. Urology. 2010;75(5):1069–73.CrossRefPubMed
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Vivas-Acevedo G, Lozano JR, Camejo MI. Effect of varicocele grade and age on seminal parameters. Urol Int. 2010;85(2):194–9.CrossRefPubMed Vivas-Acevedo G, Lozano JR, Camejo MI. Effect of varicocele grade and age on seminal parameters. Urol Int. 2010;85(2):194–9.CrossRefPubMed
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Cantatore C, Capuano P, Cobuzzi I, et al. Semen quality and hormonal levels in infertile patients with varicocele. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2010;82(4):291–3.PubMed Cantatore C, Capuano P, Cobuzzi I, et al. Semen quality and hormonal levels in infertile patients with varicocele. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2010;82(4):291–3.PubMed
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Micic S, Dotlic R, Ilic V, Genbacev O. Seminal plasma hormone profile in infertile men with and without varicocele. Arch Androl. 1986;17(3):173–8.CrossRefPubMed Micic S, Dotlic R, Ilic V, Genbacev O. Seminal plasma hormone profile in infertile men with and without varicocele. Arch Androl. 1986;17(3):173–8.CrossRefPubMed
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Swerdloff RS, Walsh PC. Pituitary and gonadal hormones in patients with varicocele. Fertil Steril. 1975;26(10):1006–12.CrossRefPubMed Swerdloff RS, Walsh PC. Pituitary and gonadal hormones in patients with varicocele. Fertil Steril. 1975;26(10):1006–12.CrossRefPubMed
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Tanrikut C, Goldstein M, Rosoff JS, et al. Varicocele as a risk factor for androgen deficiency and effect of repair. BJU Int. 2011;108(9):1480–4.CrossRefPubMed Tanrikut C, Goldstein M, Rosoff JS, et al. Varicocele as a risk factor for androgen deficiency and effect of repair. BJU Int. 2011;108(9):1480–4.CrossRefPubMed
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Su LM, Goldstein M, Schlegel PN. The effect of varicocelectomy on serum testosterone levels in infertile men with varicoceles. J Urol. 1995;154(5):1752–5.CrossRefPubMed Su LM, Goldstein M, Schlegel PN. The effect of varicocelectomy on serum testosterone levels in infertile men with varicoceles. J Urol. 1995;154(5):1752–5.CrossRefPubMed
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Hsiao W, Rosoff JS, Pale JR, Powell JL, Goldstein M. Varicocelectomy is associated with increases in serum testosterone independent of clinical grade. Urology. 2013;81(6):1213–7.CrossRefPubMed Hsiao W, Rosoff JS, Pale JR, Powell JL, Goldstein M. Varicocelectomy is associated with increases in serum testosterone independent of clinical grade. Urology. 2013;81(6):1213–7.CrossRefPubMed
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Shiraishi K, Takihara H, Matsuyama H. Elevated scrotal temperature, but not varicocele grade, reflects testicular oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. World J Urol. 2010;28(3):359–64.CrossRefPubMed Shiraishi K, Takihara H, Matsuyama H. Elevated scrotal temperature, but not varicocele grade, reflects testicular oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. World J Urol. 2010;28(3):359–64.CrossRefPubMed
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Adams JA, Galloway TS, Mondal D, Esteves SC, Mathews F. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Int. 2014;70:106–12.CrossRefPubMed Adams JA, Galloway TS, Mondal D, Esteves SC, Mathews F. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Int. 2014;70:106–12.CrossRefPubMed
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Agarwal A, Deepinder F, Sharma RK, Ranga G, Li J. Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study. Fertil Steril. 2008;89(1):124–8.CrossRefPubMed Agarwal A, Deepinder F, Sharma RK, Ranga G, Li J. Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study. Fertil Steril. 2008;89(1):124–8.CrossRefPubMed
32.
Zurück zum Zitat La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, Vicari E, D’Agata R, Calogero AE. Effects of the exposure to mobile phones on male reproduction: a review of the literature. J Androl. 2012;33(3):350–6.CrossRefPubMed La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, Vicari E, D’Agata R, Calogero AE. Effects of the exposure to mobile phones on male reproduction: a review of the literature. J Androl. 2012;33(3):350–6.CrossRefPubMed
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Djeridane Y, Touitou Y, de Seze R. Influence of electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM-900 cellular telephones on the circadian patterns of gonadal, adrenal and pituitary hormones in men. Radiat Res. 2008;169(3):337–43.CrossRefPubMed Djeridane Y, Touitou Y, de Seze R. Influence of electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM-900 cellular telephones on the circadian patterns of gonadal, adrenal and pituitary hormones in men. Radiat Res. 2008;169(3):337–43.CrossRefPubMed
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Gutschi T, Mohamad A‑AB, Shamloul R, Pummer K, Trummer H. Impact of cell phone use on men’s semen parameters. Andrologia. 2011;43(5):312–6.CrossRefPubMed Gutschi T, Mohamad A‑AB, Shamloul R, Pummer K, Trummer H. Impact of cell phone use on men’s semen parameters. Andrologia. 2011;43(5):312–6.CrossRefPubMed
Metadaten
Titel
Combined effects of varicocele and cell phones on semen and hormonal parameters
verfasst von
Ingrid Schauer
Badereddin Mohamad Al-Ali
Publikationsdatum
13.10.2017
Verlag
Springer Vienna
Erschienen in
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift / Ausgabe 9-10/2018
Print ISSN: 0043-5325
Elektronische ISSN: 1613-7671
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00508-017-1277-9

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 9-10/2018

Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 9-10/2018 Zur Ausgabe

MUW researcher of the month

MUW researcher of the month

mitteilungen der gesellschaft der ärzte in wien

Veranstaltungstipps