The main clinical features of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) are low bone mass and high bone fragility. While the decrease in bone mass is generally regarded as an indicator of disease severity, bone fragility appears as the hallmark of the disorder. Bone has a multiscale hierarchical structural organization and is optimized to resist to fractures. In OI, modifications at the molecular level affect the total mechanical integrity of the bone. A specific characteristic in OI is that the bone matrix is abnormally high mineralized independently of the underlying mutation or clinical severity. The increased matrix mineralization affects bone material quality, leading to increased stiffness and brittleness and making bone prone to fractures. The purpose of this review is to give further insights on bone matrix mineralization in OI and to discuss advantages and pitfalls of invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques.