Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Psychotherapie Forum 2/2014

01.08.2014 | Bindung und Psychotherapie

Bindung und Beziehung – eine Analyse aktueller psychoanalytischer Forschungsansätze

verfasst von: Henriette Löffler-Stastka, Karoline Parth, Franziska Lodermeier, Roland Grassl, Andreas Karwautz

Erschienen in: Psychotherapie Forum | Ausgabe 2/2014

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Zusammenfassung

Das Thema der Bindung wird in verschiedenen Forschungsfeldern wie der Entwicklungspsychologie, der Psychoanalyse und der Kleinkindforschung immer wichtiger. Dieser Artikel behandelt zwei zentrale psychoanalytische theoretische Konzepte zu Bindung. Zu Beginn werden theoretische Ansätze aus der Bindungsforschung oder Attachment Theory von Bowlby, sowie Konzepte aus der Objektsbeziehungstheorie von Klein und Bion erläutert und verglichen. Im Anschluss werden die Schutzfaktoren von sicheren Bindungsverhaltensweisen aufgezeigt und die Risikofaktoren sowie psychischen Auswirkungen bei unsicheren Bindungsmustern diskutiert. Zum Schluss werden zukünftige Forschungsmöglichkeiten aufgezeigt und eine Synthese von Forschung in der Objektbeziehungstheorie mit Konzepten der Bindungsforschung vorgeschlagen, die es ermöglichen, einen weiterführenden Zugang zur Bindungsforschung zu konzipieren.
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Agrawal, H. R., Gunderson, J., Holmes, B. M., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2004). Attachment studies with borderline patients: A review. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12(2), 94–104. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Agrawal, H. R., Gunderson, J., Holmes, B. M., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2004). Attachment studies with borderline patients: A review. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12(2), 94–104. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Arend, R., Gove, F. L., & Sroufe, L. (1979). Continuity of individual adaptation from infancy to kindergarten: A predictive study of ego-resiliency and curiosity in preschoolers. Child Development, 50(4), 950–959. PubMedCrossRef Arend, R., Gove, F. L., & Sroufe, L. (1979). Continuity of individual adaptation from infancy to kindergarten: A predictive study of ego-resiliency and curiosity in preschoolers. Child Development, 50(4), 950–959. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Belsky, J., & Fearon, R. M. P. (2002). Infant-mother attachment security, contextual risk, and early development: A moderational analysis. Development & Psychopathology, 14(2), 293–310. CrossRef Belsky, J., & Fearon, R. M. P. (2002). Infant-mother attachment security, contextual risk, and early development: A moderational analysis. Development & Psychopathology, 14(2), 293–310. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bion, W. R. (1957). Differentiation of the psychotic from the non-psychotic personalities. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 38, 266–275. PubMed Bion, W. R. (1957). Differentiation of the psychotic from the non-psychotic personalities. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 38, 266–275. PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Bion, W. R. (1962a). The psycho-analytic study of thinking. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 43, 306–310. Bion, W. R. (1962a). The psycho-analytic study of thinking. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 43, 306–310.
Zurück zum Zitat Bion, W. R. (1962b). Learning from experience. London: Tavistock. Bion, W. R. (1962b). Learning from experience. London: Tavistock.
Zurück zum Zitat Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. Vol. 2: Separation. New York: Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. Vol. 2: Separation. New York: Basic Books.
Zurück zum Zitat Bowlby, J. (1977). The making and breaking of affectional bonds: II. Some principles of psychotherapy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 421–431. PubMedCrossRef Bowlby, J. (1977). The making and breaking of affectional bonds: II. Some principles of psychotherapy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 421–431. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss. Vol. 3: Loss: Sadness and depression (S. 38–41). New York: Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss. Vol. 3: Loss: Sadness and depression (S. 38–41). New York: Basic Books.
Zurück zum Zitat Bowlby, J. (1988). Developmental psychiatry comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1–10. PubMed Bowlby, J. (1988). Developmental psychiatry comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1–10. PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Brennan, K. A., Wu, S., & Loev, J. (1998). Adult romantic attachment and individual differences in attitudes toward physical contact in the context of adult romantic relationships. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Hrsg.) , Attachment theory and close relationships (S. 428). New York: Guilford Press. Brennan, K. A., Wu, S., & Loev, J. (1998). Adult romantic attachment and individual differences in attitudes toward physical contact in the context of adult romantic relationships. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Hrsg.) , Attachment theory and close relationships (S. 428). New York: Guilford Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Brisch, K. H. (2011). Bindungsstörungen – Von der Bindungstheorie zur Therapie (S. 29–94). 11. Aufl. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta. Brisch, K. H. (2011). Bindungsstörungen – Von der Bindungstheorie zur Therapie (S. 29–94). 11. Aufl. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.
Zurück zum Zitat Calabrese, M. L., Farber, B.A ., & Westen, D. (2005). The relationship of adult attachment constructs to object relational patterns of representing self and others. Journal of American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 33, 513–530 CrossRef Calabrese, M. L., Farber, B.A ., & Westen, D. (2005). The relationship of adult attachment constructs to object relational patterns of representing self and others. Journal of American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 33, 513–530 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Carter, C. S., & Porges, S. W. (2010). Social bonding and attachment. In G. Koob, M. Le Moal & R. Thompson (Hrsg.) , Encyclopedia of behavioral neuroscience (S. 257–262). New York: Elsevier. Carter, C. S., & Porges, S. W. (2010). Social bonding and attachment. In G. Koob, M. Le Moal & R. Thompson (Hrsg.) , Encyclopedia of behavioral neuroscience (S. 257–262). New York: Elsevier.
Zurück zum Zitat Cassidy, J., Kirsh, S. J., Scolton, K. L., & Parke, R. D. (1996). Attachment and representations of peer relationships. Developmental Psychology, 32, 892–904. CrossRef Cassidy, J., Kirsh, S. J., Scolton, K. L., & Parke, R. D. (1996). Attachment and representations of peer relationships. Developmental Psychology, 32, 892–904. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3, 71–100. PubMedCrossRef Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3, 71–100. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Farber, B. A., Lippert, R. A., & Nevas, D. (1995). The therapist as attachment figure. Psychotherapy, 32, 204–212. CrossRef Farber, B. A., Lippert, R. A., & Nevas, D. (1995). The therapist as attachment figure. Psychotherapy, 32, 204–212. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Finger, B., Hans, S. L., Bernstein, V. J., & Cox, S. M. (2009). Parent relationship quality and infant-mother attachment. Attachment & Human Development, 11(3), 285–306, 116. CrossRef Finger, B., Hans, S. L., Bernstein, V. J., & Cox, S. M. (2009). Parent relationship quality and infant-mother attachment. Attachment & Human Development, 11(3), 285–306, 116. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Fonagy, P. (2001) Attachment and psychoanalysis. New York: Other Press. Fonagy, P. (2001) Attachment and psychoanalysis. New York: Other Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Fonagy, P., Steele, M., & Steele, H. (1991). Intergenerational patterns of attachment: Maternal representations during pregnancy and subsequent infant-mother attachments. Child Development, 62, 891–905. PubMedCrossRef Fonagy, P., Steele, M., & Steele, H. (1991). Intergenerational patterns of attachment: Maternal representations during pregnancy and subsequent infant-mother attachments. Child Development, 62, 891–905. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Fraley, R. C., & Heffernan, M. E. (2013). Attachment and Parental divorce: A test of the diffusion and sensitive period hypotheses. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(9), 1199–1213. PubMedCrossRef Fraley, R. C., & Heffernan, M. E. (2013). Attachment and Parental divorce: A test of the diffusion and sensitive period hypotheses. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(9), 1199–1213. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Fresno, A., Spencer, R., Ramos, N., & Pierrehumbert, B. (2014). The Effect of sexual abuse on children’s attachment representations in Chile. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 23(2), 128–145. PubMedCrossRef Fresno, A., Spencer, R., Ramos, N., & Pierrehumbert, B. (2014). The Effect of sexual abuse on children’s attachment representations in Chile. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 23(2), 128–145. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Greenberg, M. T., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (1990). Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (S. 1–3). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Greenberg, M. T., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (1990). Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (S. 1–3). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511–524. PubMedCrossRef Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511–524. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Heinrichs, M., von Dawans, B., & Domes, G. (2009). Oxytocin, vasopressin, and human social behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 30, 548–557. PubMedCrossRef Heinrichs, M., von Dawans, B., & Domes, G. (2009). Oxytocin, vasopressin, and human social behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 30, 548–557. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hesse, E., & Main, M. (1999). Second generation effects of unresolved trauma in non-maltreating parents. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 19, 481–540. CrossRef Hesse, E., & Main, M. (1999). Second generation effects of unresolved trauma in non-maltreating parents. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 19, 481–540. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hong, Y. R., & Park, J. S. (2012). Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development. Korean Journal of Pediatrics, 55(12), 449–454. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Hong, Y. R., & Park, J. S. (2012). Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development. Korean Journal of Pediatrics, 55(12), 449–454. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Klein, M (1935). A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states. In M. Klein (Hrsg.), Love, guilt and reparation and other works 1921–1945 (S. 262–290). London: Vintage Klein, M (1935). A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states. In M. Klein (Hrsg.), Love, guilt and reparation and other works 1921–1945 (S. 262–290). London: Vintage
Zurück zum Zitat Klein, M (1946). Notes on some schizoid mechanisms. In M Klein (Hrsg.), Envy and gratitude and other works, 1946–1963 (S. 1–25). London: Vintage Klein, M (1946). Notes on some schizoid mechanisms. In M Klein (Hrsg.), Envy and gratitude and other works, 1946–1963 (S. 1–25). London: Vintage
Zurück zum Zitat Lee A., & Hankin B. L. (2009). Insecure attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, and low self-esteem predicting prospective symptoms of depression and anxiety during adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(2), 219–231. CrossRef Lee A., & Hankin B. L. (2009). Insecure attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, and low self-esteem predicting prospective symptoms of depression and anxiety during adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(2), 219–231. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Leerkes, E. M. (2011). Maternal sensitivity during distressing tasks: A unique predictor of attachment security. Infant Behavior and Development, 34(3), 443–6. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Leerkes, E. M. (2011). Maternal sensitivity during distressing tasks: A unique predictor of attachment security. Infant Behavior and Development, 34(3), 443–6. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Löffler-Stastka Henriette. (2009). Von der empirisch psychoanalytischen Prozess- und Ergebnisforschung zur klinischen Praxis. Psychotherapie Forum, 17, 21–28. CrossRef Löffler-Stastka Henriette. (2009). Von der empirisch psychoanalytischen Prozess- und Ergebnisforschung zur klinischen Praxis. Psychotherapie Forum, 17, 21–28. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Löffler-Stastka Henriette. (2011). Q-sort Methoden in Diagnostik und Therapieverlaufsbeobachtung. Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, 57, 319–324. PubMedCrossRef Löffler-Stastka Henriette. (2011). Q-sort Methoden in Diagnostik und Therapieverlaufsbeobachtung. Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, 57, 319–324. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Löffler-Stastka Henriette, & Steinmair Dagmar. (2009). Psychoanalytical theory of affects and its applicability on the affect regulation and affect experience Q-Sort test (AREQ). Journal of Medical Psychology, 1, 12–22. Löffler-Stastka Henriette, & Steinmair Dagmar. (2009). Psychoanalytical theory of affects and its applicability on the affect regulation and affect experience Q-Sort test (AREQ). Journal of Medical Psychology, 1, 12–22.
Zurück zum Zitat Main, M. (1995). Discourse, prediction, and recent studies in attachment: Implications for psychoanalysis. In T. Shapiro & R. M. Emde (Hrsg.), Research in psychoanalysis: Process, development, and outcome (S. 209–244). New York: International Universities Press. Main, M. (1995). Discourse, prediction, and recent studies in attachment: Implications for psychoanalysis. In T. Shapiro & R. M. Emde (Hrsg.), Research in psychoanalysis: Process, development, and outcome (S. 209–244). New York: International Universities Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. In I. Bretherton & E. Water (Hrsg.), Monographs of the society for research in child development, 50, 66–106. Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. In I. Bretherton & E. Water (Hrsg.), Monographs of the society for research in child development, 50, 66–106.
Zurück zum Zitat Mantella, R. C., Vollmer, R. R., Rinaman, L., Li, X., & Amico, J. A. (2004). Enhanced corticosterone concentrations and attenuated Fos expression in the medial amygdala of female oxytocin knockout mice exposed to psychogenic stress. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Internative and Comparative Physiology, 287(6), 1494–504. CrossRef Mantella, R. C., Vollmer, R. R., Rinaman, L., Li, X., & Amico, J. A. (2004). Enhanced corticosterone concentrations and attenuated Fos expression in the medial amygdala of female oxytocin knockout mice exposed to psychogenic stress. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Internative and Comparative Physiology, 287(6), 1494–504. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Moss, E., Parent, S., Gosselin, C., Rousseau, D., & St. Laurent, D. (1996). Attachment and teacher-reported behavior problems during the preschool and early school-age period. Development and Psychopathology, 8(3), 511–525. CrossRef Moss, E., Parent, S., Gosselin, C., Rousseau, D., & St. Laurent, D. (1996). Attachment and teacher-reported behavior problems during the preschool and early school-age period. Development and Psychopathology, 8(3), 511–525. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Schore, J. R., & Schore, A. (2008). Modern attachment theory: The central role of affect regulation in development and treatment. Clinical Social Work Journal, 36, 9–20. CrossRef Schore, J. R., & Schore, A. (2008). Modern attachment theory: The central role of affect regulation in development and treatment. Clinical Social Work Journal, 36, 9–20. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Scott, S., Briskman, J., Woolgar, M., Humayun, S., & O’Connor, T. G. (2011). Attachment in adolescence: overlap with parenting and unique prediction of behavioural adjustment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(10), 1052–1062. PubMedCrossRef Scott, S., Briskman, J., Woolgar, M., Humayun, S., & O’Connor, T. G. (2011). Attachment in adolescence: overlap with parenting and unique prediction of behavioural adjustment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(10), 1052–1062. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Shah, P. E., Fonagy, P., & Strathearn, L. (2010). Is attachment transmitted across generations? The plot thickens. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15(3), 329–345. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Shah, P. E., Fonagy, P., & Strathearn, L. (2010). Is attachment transmitted across generations? The plot thickens. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15(3), 329–345. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Sorensen, P. (2000). Observations of transition facilitating behavior: Developmental and theoretical mplications. International Journal of Infant Observation, 3(2), 46–54. CrossRef Sorensen, P. (2000). Observations of transition facilitating behavior: Developmental and theoretical mplications. International Journal of Infant Observation, 3(2), 46–54. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Sorensen, P. B. (2005). Transition facilitating behavior: Bridging attachment theory and british object relations. Journal of Infant, Child & Adolescent Psychotherapy, 4, 119–133 CrossRef Sorensen, P. B. (2005). Transition facilitating behavior: Bridging attachment theory and british object relations. Journal of Infant, Child & Adolescent Psychotherapy, 4, 119–133 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Spangler, G., Johann, M., Ronai, Z., & Zimmermann, P. (2009). Genetic and environmental influence on attachment disorganization. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(8), 952–961. PubMedCrossRef Spangler, G., Johann, M., Ronai, Z., & Zimmermann, P. (2009). Genetic and environmental influence on attachment disorganization. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(8), 952–961. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Stronach, E. P., Toth, S. L., Rogosch, F., Oshri, A., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (2011). Child maltreatment, attachment security, and internal representations of mother and mother-child relationships. Child Maltreatment, 16(2), 137–45. PubMedCrossRef Stronach, E. P., Toth, S. L., Rogosch, F., Oshri, A., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (2011). Child maltreatment, attachment security, and internal representations of mother and mother-child relationships. Child Maltreatment, 16(2), 137–45. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Suess, G. J., Grossmann, K. E., & Sroufe, L. A. (1992). Effects of infant attachment to mother and father on quality of adaptation in preschool: From dyadic to individual organization of self. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 15(1), 43–65. CrossRef Suess, G. J., Grossmann, K. E., & Sroufe, L. A. (1992). Effects of infant attachment to mother and father on quality of adaptation in preschool: From dyadic to individual organization of self. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 15(1), 43–65. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Urist, J. (1977). The Rorschach test and the assessment of object relations. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41, 3–9. PubMedCrossRef Urist, J. (1977). The Rorschach test and the assessment of object relations. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41, 3–9. PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (1997). Intergenerational transmission of attachment: A move to the contextual level. In L. Atkinson & K. J. Zucker (Hrsg.) , Attachment and psychopathology (S. 135–170). New York: Guilford Press. Van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (1997). Intergenerational transmission of attachment: A move to the contextual level. In L. Atkinson & K. J. Zucker (Hrsg.) , Attachment and psychopathology (S. 135–170). New York: Guilford Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Werner, E. (1990). Protective factors and individual resilience. In S. Meisels & J. P. Shonkoff (Hrsg.) , Handbook of early childhood intervention (S. 97–116). New York: Cambridge University Press. Werner, E. (1990). Protective factors and individual resilience. In S. Meisels & J. P. Shonkoff (Hrsg.) , Handbook of early childhood intervention (S. 97–116). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Werner, E. E. (2007). Entwicklung zwischen Risiko und Resilienz. In G. Opp & M. Fingerle (Hrsg.) , Was Kinder stärkt. Erziehung zwischen Risiko und Resilienz (S. 20–31). 2. Aufl. München: Reinhardt. Werner, E. E. (2007). Entwicklung zwischen Risiko und Resilienz. In G. Opp & M. Fingerle (Hrsg.) , Was Kinder stärkt. Erziehung zwischen Risiko und Resilienz (S. 20–31). 2. Aufl. München: Reinhardt.
Zurück zum Zitat Westen, D. (1998). The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: Toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 333–371. PubMedCrossRef Westen, D. (1998). The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: Toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 333–371. PubMedCrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Bindung und Beziehung – eine Analyse aktueller psychoanalytischer Forschungsansätze
verfasst von
Henriette Löffler-Stastka
Karoline Parth
Franziska Lodermeier
Roland Grassl
Andreas Karwautz
Publikationsdatum
01.08.2014
Verlag
Springer Vienna
Erschienen in
Psychotherapie Forum / Ausgabe 2/2014
Print ISSN: 0943-1950
Elektronische ISSN: 1613-7604
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00729-014-0016-1