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01.02.2016 | original article | Ausgabe 3-4/2016

Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 3-4/2016

Assessment of smoking for low bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

Wiener klinische Wochenschrift > Ausgabe 3-4/2016
MD Ugur Ugurlu, Asst. Prof. Dr. Umit Nayki, Asst. Prof. Dr. Cenk Nayki, Asst. Prof. Dr. Pasa Ulug, MD Mehmet Kulhan, Prof. Dr. Yusuf Yildirim



To investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women.

Study design

A total of 175 postmenopausal Turkish women admitted to Tepecik Training and Research Hospital for a routine menopausal checkup were included in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding their age, educational status, parity, number of abortus, time since menopause, caffeine intake, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, history of a previous fracture related to trauma, and taking any medication for menopause and osteoporosis. Of all subjects, 23.3 % (n = 39) were smokers and 77.7 % (n = 136) were nonsmokers. T-scores and Z-scores of vertebra and femur neck were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For analyzing the results, Student t-test, one-way ANOVA, Mann–Whitney U test, Pearson correlation, and Kruskal–Wallis test were performed.


Femur T-scores (− 0.78 ± 1.07 vs. − 0.32 ± 1.56) and vertebra T-scores (− 2.26 ± 1.23 vs. − 1.82 ± 1.04) were significantly lower in smoking women than nonsmoking women (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant difference between duration of smoking, number of cigarettes consumed per day, and BMD (p > 0.05)


Cigarette smoking is one of the modifiable risk factors influencing bone density in postmenopausal Turkish women. “Cessation of cigarette” should be recommended for lifestyle modifications to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

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