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28.05.2021 | review article

Alterations of the male and female reproductive systems induced by COVID-19

Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
Paulo Roberto Carneiro Gomes, Maria Debora Rodrigues da Rocha, Francisco Alex da Rocha Coelho, John Arlley Sousa Pinho de Lira, Rubens Renato de Sousa Carmo, Hélio Mateus Silva Nascimento, Samara Marques de Oliveira, Wesley Rodrigues da Silva, Rebeca Galdino Medeiros, Even Herlany Pereira Alves, André dos Santos Carvalho, Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos
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A variety of pneumonia cases of unknown cause emerged in China in December 2019. A new virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family, called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Within a few days, COVID-19 became a pandemic disease. This review aimed to investigate the possible implications of COVID-19 for human reproductive systems, as in previous studies ACE2 was highly expressed in some organs of these systems, such as the testicles. A total of 41 publications were found in the specialized databases and, after selection, 7 articles were used to build this study. Our results showed that the fever caused by COVID-19 has a negative effect on spermatogenesis, there is high expression of ACE2 in the testicles and in the uterine tubes and there is a higher level of transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), which is also responsible for the entry of the virus into the cell. Moreover, it was noted that there was viral genetic material in the semen and an increase in the serum concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) in men and women, which could cause hypogonadism. Thus, we conclude that there is the possibility of infection and malfunction in the reproductive organs as well as the plausibility of sexual transmission of this disease. Further analysis must be carried out to prove the effects of COVID-19 on the human reproductive systems.

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