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Erschienen in: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 1-2/2020

03.12.2019 | themenschwerpunkt

Aktuelle Diskussion zur risikoadaptierten Therapie des differenzierten Schilddrüsenkarzinoms: Ist weniger (Therapie) wirklich mehr?

verfasst von: Amir Kurtaran, Brigitta Schmoll-Hauer, Christina Tugendsam

Erschienen in: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift | Ausgabe 1-2/2020

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Zusammenfassung

In den letzten Jahren wurde weltweit eine signifikante (relative) Zunahme von „kleinen“ Schilddrüsenkarzinomen (pT1 = Tumorgröße ≤10 mm) beobachtet, die nun ein Plateau erreicht hat. Diese Tatsache und das Fehlen von prospektiven und randomisierten klinischen Studien führen zunehmend zu einer Diskussion des sog. risikoadaptierten Managements des differenzierten Schilddrüsenkarzinoms. Die vorhandenen Daten sind teilweise inkomplett, retrospektiv und können schwer miteinander verglichen werden. Darüber hinaus beeinflussen Faktoren wie unterschiedliche Jodversorgung, Kosten-Nutzen-Überlegungen und regionale Unterschiede in der Vorhaltung und Qualität chirurgischer Verfahren die Umsetzung der Therapiekonzepte. Deshalb ist die Therapie des differenzierten Schilddrüsenkarzinoms vor allem in „low risk“ Situationen Gegenstand intensiver Diskussion. Es besteht ein weltweiter Trend, das Risiko des differenzierten Schilddrüsenkarzinoms allgemein wesentlich niedriger einzuschätzen als in der Vergangenheit und damit auch den Umfang der ursprünglich empfohlenen Therapie zu reduzieren. Die Diskussion bewegt sich zunehmend vom „One size fits all“ in Richtung personalisierter und somit risikoadaptierter Therapie des differenzierten Schilddrüsenkarzinoms.
Das Hauptziel dieses „Paradigmenwechsels“ ist die Vermeidung einer „Übertherapie“ mit den eventuell daraus verbundenen permanenten Komplikationen durch „überzogene“ chirurgische Maßnahmen und ev. negativen Auswirkungen einer Radiojodablation.
Die vorliegende Übersicht versucht auf folgende Fragen Antwort zu geben: Wann ist eine risikoadaptierte Reduktion der Therapie beim differenzierten Schilddrüsenkarzinom zulässig? Welche Konsequenzen ergeben sich beim differenzierten Schilddrüsenkarzinom, wenn die Radiojodtherapie weggelassen wird?
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Metadaten
Titel
Aktuelle Diskussion zur risikoadaptierten Therapie des differenzierten Schilddrüsenkarzinoms: Ist weniger (Therapie) wirklich mehr?
verfasst von
Amir Kurtaran
Brigitta Schmoll-Hauer
Christina Tugendsam
Publikationsdatum
03.12.2019
Verlag
Springer Vienna
Erschienen in
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift / Ausgabe 1-2/2020
Print ISSN: 0043-5341
Elektronische ISSN: 1563-258X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10354-019-00713-5

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