Evaluation of radiographic techniques for localization of impacted maxillary canines
Background: Maxillary canines are the most frequently impacted teeth after the third molars.
Material and methods: The study was performed on 50 impacted maxillary canines. The selected patients were examined systematically and radiological examinations were carried out, which included two periapical, a cross-sectional maxillary occlusal radiograph, and a panoramic radiograph for each impacted canine. The two periapical radiographs were taken using the tube shift technique with a horizontal tube shift. Correct prediction of the labiolingual position of canine impaction is possible by using the same-side-lingual opposite-side-buccal (SLOB) technique. Therefore the results of this technique were used as gold standard in our study.
Results: Out of 50 impacted canines, 17 (34 %) were located bucally, 32 (64 %) palatally, and 1 (2 %) in the arch. In all, 40.7 % and 26.1 % of the impacted maxillary canines were located buccally in males and females, respectively. When compared with the results of the SLOB technique, intraoral periapical (IOPA) and occlusal (vertical and horizontal angulation) radiographs, IOPA radiographs and orthopantomograms (OPGs), and occlusal radiographs and OPGs showed statistically significant results. Although OPG also showed statistically significant results, it was a less reliable method. OPG used with occlusal radiographs yielded the most reliable results.
Conclusion: Conventional radiography has remained the technique of choice for localization of impacted canines owing to its wide availability, low cost, and less radiation exposure when compared with other advanced modalities such as computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography.