Analysis of the histopathological features of 54 cases of peripheral giant cell granuloma
Background: Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a common reactive lesion of the gingiva and alveolar ridge. The lesion is characterized by several histopathological features and cellular cannibalism according to the recent literature. The aim of this study was to examine and analytically record the histopathological features of PGCG in an attempt to contribute to a better knowledge of the microscopic characteristics of this lesion.
Methods: Archival sections from 54 cases of PGCG were examined and the histopathological features were recorded.
Results: Cannibalistic type I multinucleated giant cells were found in all cases (100 %). Interstitial hemorrhage and hemosiderin deposits were seen in 92.6 % of the cases. In addition, granules of hemosiderin in type I multinucleated giant cells were occasionally observed. Type I multinucleated giant cells were found in intimate contact with vessels and within the lumen of vessels in 35.1% and 20.3 % of the cases, respectively. Bone was present in 31.5 % of the cases and was most often woven in combination with lamellar bone. Ulcerated (74.1 %) and hyperplastic mucosal lining epithelium (62.2 %) were most often observed. Chronic and both acute and chronic types of inflammatory infiltration and mild intensity of inflammatory infiltration were most often found.
Conclusion: In addition to the common microscopic features the data showed that only type I multinucleated giant cells of PGCGs have cannibalistic behavior, were occasionally involved in phagocytosis of hemosiderin and sometimes entered the lumen of vessels with an as yet unknown mediated process.