An unusual case of therapy-related myeloid neoplasm
Introduction: Myeloid sarcomas are rare extramedullary manifestations of a malignant tumor consisting of immature myeloid cells with or without maturation. They have been reported at almost every anatomical site but are most frequently encountered in the skin, lymph nodes and gastrointestinal tract.
Case Report: The case of a patient with hypertrophic mucosal alteration after dental extraction is described. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations showed infiltration of the gingival tissue by a myeloid sarcoma. Local radiation with a total dose of 50 Gy was applied and 14 months later the patient is in good health without any evidence of local or systemic relapse.
Conclusions: Myeloid sarcomas although rare should be included in the differential diagnosis of atypical swellings in the oral cavity. A patient-centered treatment approach including intensive systemic chemotherapy in younger patients and/or local radiation therapy, as was the case in the presented patient with advanced age, is mandatory for long-term disease control.