Anxiety and depression disorders in cancer patients: incidence, diagnosis and therapy
Psycho-oncologist research in recent years has focused on assessment of distress and mental disorders in cancer patients. Primary objective has been the implementation of individually tailored psychosocial support during routine medical care. This review shows that based on validly structured clinical interviews, 30–40% of the studied patient population had a mental disorder in accordance with the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Most common diagnoses were depression, adjustment and anxiety disorders. Risk factors included among others younger age, previous history of mental disorders and lack of social support. Screening instruments are useful, easy to complete and allow early detection of high distress in patients, enabling appropriate interventions in affected patients. Established methods in psycho-oncology are cognitive behavioural therapy, psycho-educational groups and relaxation trainings. A positive influence of early palliative care intervention on cancer patients' mood has been shown. Adequate resources in acute and outpatient routine care shall be offered.