Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a life-threatening stem cell disorder characterized by rapid and uncontrolled proliferation and accumulation of myeloblasts. Its prognosis and clinical picture vary depending on the genes that underwent deregulation, the cell type involved and the specific biological properties of the clone. If treated appropriately, the rate of complete remission (CR) is rather high (between 60 and 80%). By contrast, however, long-term relapse-free survival is poor in these patients (10–30% at 5 years). Thus, there are ongoing attempts to improve the therapy of AML patients by the introduction of novel treatment strategies and novel therapeutics. At the ASH-meeting 2010 a total number of 872 abstracts on AML were presented.