PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumours in the world and the fourth most common cause of mortality, with ongoing changes in what epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment are concerned. This paper summarizes current strategies and new trends in HCC diagnosis and treatment.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review of literature integrating personal experience.
RESULTS: This review emphasizes the epidemiological trends, diagnostic developments and new treatment strategies for HCC, with its particularities for various world regions. Early diagnosis continues to be the key for effective therapy.
CONCLUSION: In the era of personalized molecular therapies, the development of molecular classification of HCC using gene signature is urgently needed, allowing the tailoring of HCC medical therapy. Novel molecular targeted therapy should be evaluated in randomized clinical trials as adjuvant therapy to surgery, ablation or TACE.