Revascularization of the superior mesenteric artery alone for treatment of chronic mesenteric ischemia
Background: Symptomatic patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) should be treated without much delay because symptoms of CMI are present in 43 % patients who present with acute mesenteric ischemia. There are few reported series with large numbers of patients undergoing surgery for CMI, and many controversies persist regarding the optimal surgical treatment. These controversies include the type of surgical repair (antegrade vs. retrograde bypass), and the number of arteries that should be treated (single- vs. multiple-vessel reconstruction). It was the aim of presented study to report our experience and long-term results with single-vessel bypass grafting from infrarenal aorta to superior mesenteric artery.
Methods: Patients who were admitted because of mesenteric ischemia at the surgical clinics of University Clinical Center Maribor between January 1999 and January 2009 were identified with a computerized medical data registry. Patients who underwent revascularization for CMI with retrograde synthetic aortomesenteric bypass were included in the study. Demographics, clinical characteristics, imaging, and operative data were obtained from the medical records. Significant superior mesenteric artery stenosis (> 70 % diameter stenosis) was confirmed by spiral computed angiography. All patients underwent retrograde aortomesenteric arterial bypass with synthetic bypass graft originating from the infrarenal aorta. Doppler sonography combined with color Doppler was used to evaluate disease progression in patients at 3-month interval during the first year and from then at 6-month intervals. Endpoints of the study were occlusion of graft or death by any cause.
Results: Data are presented for a cohort of 19 women and 8 men with a mean age at admission 73 years (range 56–88 years). The mean duration of follow-up was 71 months (range 1–118 months). There was one early death (4 %). Four patients died during the follow-up period, and three were lost for follow-up. None of the deaths was connected with mesenteric ischemia. During follow-up period none of the patients developed restenosis, and no occlusions were observed. There were no reinterventions. Symptom improvements were noted in 25 patients (93 %). One patient (4 %) referred to persistent pain despite successful revascularization, although during follow-up period weight gain was observed. At 71 months, freedom from recurrent symptoms, restenosis, and reinterventions was 78 % ± 13.9 %.
Conclusions: Surgery for CMI can be safely performed with retrograde approach and single vessel anastomosis. Mortality rates and long-term survival compare favorably with other surgical approaches to treatment of CMI.