Training in surgery should be a major concern to all. The relationship between quality and quantity in surgery is well established. The substantial changes in health care in Europe, in particular the restriction of working hours by the Working Hours Act (KA-AZG), will have a lasting impact on training in the future. In Austria, the concept of the importance of training and teaching cannot meet the new challenges, and is particularly behind compared to Anglo-Saxon countries. This is also reflected in a recent survey among people undergoing training in surgery, which is published in this issue by Bettina Klugsberger. In Germany, young surgeons have teamed up in the “Junge Chirurgen” (“Young Surgeons”; CAJC) working group within the Society of General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV), to meet the changing requirements. Their experiences and activities are impressive. In the article by Andreas Kirschniak, the needs in training are pointed out. The aim of this special issue was also to present the conditions in terms of education and training in other countries from the perspective of European conditions. Many young surgeons go abroad to work or to do research. The personal view of a young surgeon in the States is reflected best by the manuscript by Jens Berli and Gerald Brandacher. They stress dedication, mentorship, and exposure as the three main pillars of training. Doing your Doctor of Philosophy degree abroad has become increasingly popular. Annemarie Weissenbacher describes her experience with respect to this matter, and shows that exposure to a new research environment enhances personal development, gains language skills, and enhances the career significantly.